The Ascension Project
Attack Roll: An attack roll represents your attempt to strike your opponent on your turn in a round. When you make an attack roll, you roll a d20 and add your attack bonus. (Other modifiers may also apply to this roll). If your result equals or beats the target’s Defense, you hit and deal damage.
Automatic Misses and Hits: A natural 1 (the d20 comes up 1) on an attack roll is always a miss (“fumble”) and uses special rules. A natural 20 (the d20 comes up 20) is always a hit. A natural 20 is also a threat – a possible critical hit (see the Critical Hits and Critical Failures chapter).
Your attack bonus with a melee weapon or unarmed attack is: Base attack bonus + Strength modifier + other modifiers
With a ranged or thrown weapon, or a ranged touch attack, your attack bonus is:
Base attack bonus + Dexterity modifier + range penalty + other modifiers
Strength Modifier: Strength helps you swing a weapon harder and faster, so its modifier applies to melee attack rolls.
Dexterity Modifier: Dexterity measures coordination and steadiness, so your Dexterity modifier applies to attacks with ranged weapons and ranged touch attacks.
Other Modifiers: These bonuses are related to attack modifiers gained from other sources, such as feats, abilities, weapon
modifications, class features, etc.