The Ascension Project
When an attack succeeds, damage is dealt. The type of weapon used determines the amount of damage. Damage reduces a target’s current hit points.
Minimum Damage: If penalties reduce the damage result to less than 1, a hit still deals 1 point of damage. Damage Reduction, however, can reduce damage dealt to a character to less than 1 but cannot make a character gain HP.
Any time an unprotected character takes damage from a single hit that exceeds the character’s massive damage threshold, that damage is considered massive damage. A character’s massive damage threshold is equal to the character’s current Constitution score X2; it can be increased by taking the Improved Damage Threshold feat.
When a character takes massive damage that doesn’t reduce their hit points to 0 or lower, the character must make a Fortitude save (DC 15). If the character fails the save, the character’s hit point total is immediately reduced to –1. If the save succeeds, the character suffers no ill effect beyond the loss of hit points.
Creatures immune to critical hits are also immune to the effects of massive damage.
Damage Roll: Once a successful attack is made, the character must roll for damage.
That roll is:
Thrown Weapons: Weapon’s damage dice + Strength modifier + other modifiers
Unarmed Attacks: 1d3 (for Medium-sized creatures) + Strength modifier + other modifiers
Melee Weapons: Weapon’s damage dice + Strength modifier + other modifiers
Ranged Attacks: Weapon’s damage dice + other modifiers Once the damage is rolled, add all modifiers and dice results to determine total damage. That is the amount of damage a character does with that successful attack.
Damage is dealt to the target’s Shields. If the target does not have any Shields left, the damage is then done to the target’s Plating. If the target has no Plating left, the damage is then done to the target’s HP, but it is reduced by Damage Reduction.
Note: if your attack deals, say, 20 damage on a character with just 10 Shield HP, you do not divide the damage between Shield HP and the character’s HP. This means that each attack targets a specific HP pool and cannot affect the others, no matter how much damage the attack deals. Unless, of course, otherwise stated.
Multiplying Damage: Sometimes you multiply damage by some factor, such as on a critical hit. When you multiply damage more than once, each multiplier works off the original,
un-multiplied damage. To avoid complications, just consider that two doubles equal a triple, a triple and a double equal a quadruple and so on.
Ability Damage: Certain effects can cause temporary ability damage (a reduction to an ability score).